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J. Korean Ceram. Soc. > Volume 59(4); 2022 > Article
Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society 2022;59(4): 480-493.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s43207-022-00199-9
Investigating biological impact of HAp from goat femur reinforced with Zr–Ag for bone tissue engineering application
Karthik Alagarsamy1, Vinita Vishwakarma1, Gobi Saravanan Kaliaraj1, Viswanathan Kanagasabai1, Sathiskumar Ramasamy2
1Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600119, India
2Coimbatore Institute Technology, Coimbatore 641014, India
Correspondence  Vinita Vishwakarma ,Email: vinitavishwakarma@sathyabama.ac.in
Received: September 8, 2021; Revised: January 30, 2022   Accepted: March 21, 2022.  Published online: July 31, 2022.
In this study, the diferent weight percentages of ZrO2–Ag-reinforced HAp were prepared by the planetary mill and calcinated at 800 °C for 5 h. Synthesized nano-composites evolved the hexagonal phase of HAp in addition to ZrO2 and Ag peaks. Raman spectroscopy confrmed the high-intensity band of PO4−3 group and major bands of Zr and Ag. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial growth were arrested in HA20Zr10Ag nano-composites evaluated by in vitro antibacterial activity. Hemocompatible behavior of the reinforced HAp revealed that the nanocomposites was non-hemolytic with distinct RBC morphology and this efect was more pronounced while increasing ZrO2 concentration. Biocompatibility studies, such as protein adsorption, cell viability, fuorescence staining, mineralization, and quantifcation of BMP-2, were analyzed with MG-63. The nanocomposites have adsorbed a high amount of proteins (~300 to 700 µg) from the serum. MTT assay revealed the percentage of the viability of the cells was ~ 70% to 80%. In vitro cytotoxic behavior of MG-63 cells illustrated that HA20Zr10Ag nanocomposites expressed polygonal structure with elongated morphology by Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin and DAPI staining. Similarly, nano-composites powder proved its mineralization capability through intracellular calcium uptake up to the 5th day of MG-63 incubation. While, BMP-2 expression was slightly higher in HA20Zr10Ag nano-composite at 5th day of incubation. From the results, it is illustrated that HAp with 20 wt% of ZrO2 and 10 wt% Ag nanocomposites has an important role in osteoblastic bone formation.
Key words: Nanocomposites · Hydroxyapatite · Zirconia · Silver · Biocompatibility
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